No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the Thirty Years’ War on the side of the Protestants to counter the Habsburgs and bring the war to an end. The position of the Holy Roman Emperor was mainly titular, but the emperors, from the House of Habsburg, also directly ruled a large portion of imperial territory (lands of the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Bohemia), as well as the Kingdom of Hungary. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers. By the spring of 1635, all Swedish resistance in the south of Germany had ended. The Thirty Years War was one of the decisive episodes in the history of Western civilization. This also contributed to catalyzing the Thirty Years’ War. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and relatively intolerant when compared to his predecessor, Rudolf II. The Swedes scored several victories in the northern and central parts of the Empire, led by their King Gustavus Adolphus, until he died in battle in 1632. Finally, German princes were forbidden from establishing alliances amongst themselves or with foreign powers, and amnesty was granted to any ruler who had taken up arms against the emperor after the arrival of the Swedes in 1630. In some areas of Germany, it has been suggested that up to 60% of the population died. In 1648, the Swedes (commanded by Marshal Carl Gustaf Wrangel) and the French (led by Turenne and Condé) defeated the imperial army at the Battle of Zusmarshausen, and the Spanish at Lens. Protestants in Bohemia were wary of Ferdinand reversing the religious tolerance and freedom formerly established by the Peace of Augsburg. Along with ending open warfare between the belligerents, the Peace of Westphalia established several important tenets and agreements: There were also several territorial adjustments brought about by the peace settlements. From 1618 to 1648 a series of conflicts engulfed much of Europe. Denmark had feared that the recent Catholic successes threatened its sovereignty as a Protestant nation. Wallenstein feared losing his northern German gains to a Danish-Swedish alliance, while Christian IV had suffered another defeat in the Battle of Wolgast (1628); both were ready to negotiate. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire between 1618 and 1648. With Tilly dead, Ferdinand II returned to the aid of Wallenstein and his large army. Although the majority of Germany suffered from famine and economic ruin, there were regions that came out of the war … courses that prepare you to earn It ended when a garrison of the Holy Roman Empire surrendered to the French, commanded by Bernard of Saxe-Weimar.... more Another branch of the House of Habsburg ruled over Spain and its empire, which included the Spanish Netherlands, southern Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas. Swedish forces entered the Holy Roman Empire via the Duchy of Pomerania, which had served as the Swedish bridgehead since the Treaty of Stettin (1630). France declared war on Spain in May 1635, and on the Holy Roman Empire in August 1636, opening offensives against the Habsburgs in Germany and the Low Countries. At the same time, the Bohemian estates deposed Ferdinand as King of Bohemia (Ferdinand remained emperor, since the titles are separate) and replaced him with Frederick V, Elector Palatine, a leading Calvinist and son-in-law of the Protestant James VI and I, King of Scotland, England, and Ireland. General recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, and responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents. In the twenty-first century, we take religious freedom for granted: if you don't like the church you attended last Sunday, try the one across the street. The corp of engineers were the most modern of their age, and in the campaigns in Germany the population repeatedly expressed surprise at the extensive nature of the entrenchment and the elaborate nature of the equipment. To fight Christian, Ferdinand II employed the military help of Albrecht von Wallenstein, a Bohemian nobleman who had made himself rich from the confiscated estates of his Protestant countrymen. Following is a summary … What were the main consequences of the Thirty Years' War? However, other Protestants supported the stance taken by the Catholics, and in 1617 Ferdinand was duly elected by the Bohemian Estates to become the Crown Prince and, automatically upon the death of Matthias, the next King of Bohemia. He then laid siege to Stralsund, the only belligerent Baltic port with sufficient facilities to build a large fleet; it soon became clear, however, that the cost of continuing the war would far outweigh any gains from conquering the rest of Denmark. A year later, they met again in another Protestant victory, this time accompanied by the death of Tilly. - Definition & Architecture, Quiz & Worksheet - Bronze Age Greece & Schliemann's Work, Quiz & Worksheet - Mycenae's Collapse & Greek Colonization, Quiz & Worksheet - Greek Myth and Religion, Quiz & Worksheet - History of the Alphabet, The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, Biology 202L: Anatomy & Physiology II with Lab, Biology 201L: Anatomy & Physiology I with Lab, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Supervisors, California Sexual Harassment Refresher Course: Employees. These tensions came to a head in 1618 in the Germanic state of Bohemia. Sweden received Western Pomerania, Wismar, and the Prince-Bishoprics of Bremen and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, resulting in millions of casualties. His policies were considered heavily pro-Catholic. Although he was killed in action, his armies successfully defeated their enemies and gave birth to the Swedish Empire after proving their ability in combat. The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states, which, after the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, was divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership. 1. Frederick was forced to sign an armistice with Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, thus ending the “Palatine Phase” of the Thirty Years’ War. Ferdinand II, educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic who wanted to impose religious uniformity on his lands. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Gustav was concerned about the growing power of the Holy Roman Empire, and like Christian IV before him, was heavily subsidized by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of Louis XIII of France, and by the Dutch. Appendixes: A chronology of the era of the Thirty Years War (1608-1650) Questions for consideration. When this lesson is completed, you should be able to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Most textbooks refer to two different series of events as the "Thirty Years' War. The Danes were defeated several times in Germany and in their own territory and retreated to the Danish islands where Wallenstein, who was without a fleet, could not reach the Danish forces. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire. Wallenstein marched to the south, threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. Despite the odds being stacked against them, the Swedish army won. This event, known as the Defenestration of Prague, started the Bohemian Revolt. Services. Ferdinand II: Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, whose aim, as a zealous Catholic, was to restore Catholicism as the only religion in the empire and suppress Protestantism, and whose actions helped precipitate the Thirty Years’ War. By the end of the war, the shape of Europe had been greatly changed. The Treaty of Prague angered the French, who quickly realized the Treaty strengthened Hapsburg control over the entirety of the Holy Roman Empire; it was the exact antithesis of the stated French goals for entering the war. The peace negotiations involved a total of 109 delegations representing European powers, including Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Philip IV of Spain, the Kingdom of France, the Swedish Empire, the Dutch Republic, the princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and sovereigns of the free imperial cities. You must be certain that you do not confuse these two events. During the campaign, Sweden managed to conquer half of the imperial kingdoms, making it the continental leader of Protestantism until the Swedish Empire ended in 1721. Danish involvement, referred to as the Low Saxon War, began when Christian IV of Denmark, a Lutheran who also ruled as Duke of Holstein, a duchy within the Holy Roman Empire, helped the Lutheran rulers of neighboring Lower Saxony by leading an army against Ferdinand II’s imperial forces in 1625. Sweden did not take part in the Peace of Prague, and it joined with France in continuing the war. Moreover, some 6,000 English troops under Charles Morgan also eventually arrived to bolster the defense of Denmark, though it took longer for them to arrive than Christian had hoped, due partially to the ongoing British campaigns against France and Spain. Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war. From 1630 to 1634, Swedish-led armies drove the Catholic forces back, regaining much of the lost Protestant territory. Some territory changed hands, as France was granted parts of Alsace and Sweden gained part of Pomerania. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Westphalia and Peace of Augsburg: States' Rise to Sovereignty and Decline of the Empire, The 30 Years' War & the Birth of the Enlightenment, The 30 Years War: Catholics vs. Protestants, Revolutions of 1848 & the Spring of Nations: Major Revolutions, Causes & Collapse, The Glorious Revolution of 1688: Events and Significance, The Holy Roman Empire: Politics & Religion, The War of Austrian Succession: Summary and Effects on the World, The French Wars of Religion: Catholics vs. the Huguenots, Political Realism Theory: Definition & Principles, The English Civil War: Summary, Causes, Effects & Timeline, The Commercial Revolution: Economic Impact of Exploration and Colonization on Europe, The Unification of Italy: Summary, Timeline & Leaders, Congress of Vienna: Members, Objectives & Results, Social and Economic Life in Early Modern Europe: Peasantry, Nobility & Early Modern Economies, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor: Accomplishments, Facts & Quotes, Theoretical Approaches to International Relations: Realism, Liberalism & Marxism, Colonial Mercantilism: Definition, History & Effects, The Unification of Germany: Summary, Timeline & Events, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, Western Civilization I: Certificate Program, English 103: Analyzing and Interpreting Literature, Environmental Science 101: Environment and Humanity, Psychology 105: Research Methods in Psychology. 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