In much of the developed world, insufficient exercise coupled with the ready availability and consumption of high-calorie foods have resulted in unwanted accumulations of adipose tissue in many people. 2021 Sweat from the sudoriferous glands is slightly hypertonic and can flush off most bacteria on the skin surface. The dermis is directly attached to the periosteum of the distal phalanx and it is richly vascularized. The integumentary system refers to the skin and its accessory structures, and it is responsible for much more than simply lending to your outward appearance. Skin is the largest organ in the body. A sudden drop in oxygenation can affect skin color, causing the skin to initially turn ashen (white). The skin consists of two layers – the dermis and the epidermis. The nail matrix is the structure out of which the nail plate grows. Your skin is a vital part of your life and appearance (a–d). Wrinkled Skin: Wrinkles form due to intrinsic (loss of collagen) and extrinsic (photodamage) aging. The skin is the first line of defense for the immune system. It is interesting to note that the “spiny” nature of this layer is an artifact of the staining process. Most skin disorders are relatively benign, but a few, including melanomas, can be fatal if untreated. The skin is the largest organ in the body. Intrinsic Aging. – The skin has a significant capacity for renewal and crucial roles for the normal functioning of the human body. Within the papillary layer are fibroblasts, a small number of fat cells (adipocytes), and an abundance of small blood vessels. There is no direct blood supply to the epidermis and therefore, the cells of this stratified squamous tissue obtain nutrients and oxygen through diffusion. The skin also takes part in a variety of biochemical synthetic processes, such as vitamin D production under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, but also the production of cytokines and growth factors. A narrower duct emerges from the gland and it opens via a pore on the skin surface. As new cells are formed, the existing cells are pushed superficially away from the stratum basale. A nail consists of: the nail plate, nail folds, nail matrix, nail bed and hyponychium. See more ideas about integumentary system, anatomy and physiology, skin anatomy. The nail plate is completely free distally to the onychodermal band (distal margin of the nail bed). They are mostly observed on males but also in the axillary and pubic regions of both sexes. It increases the mobility of the skin, it thermally insulates the body, acts as a shock absorber and is a source of energy. The nerve endings branch out and form reticular plexuses in the dermis, innervating the respective components. Melanin gives hair and skin its color, and also helps protect the living cells of the epidermis from ultraviolet (UV) radiation damage. Collagen injections and Retin-A creams help restore skin turgor by either introducing collagen externally or stimulating blood flow and repair of the dermis, respectively. The integumentary system helps regulate body temperature through its tight association with the sympathetic nervous system, the division of the nervous system involved in our fight-or-flight responses. It is actually a downgrowth of the dermis and contiguous with the epithelium. You’ll likely think of the skin. • The nail bed consists of two layers: the epidermis and dermis. In hot, dry environm… When there is an irregular accumulation of melanocytes in the skin, freckles appear. Its main function is to act as a barrier to protect the body from the outside world. Recall that melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Several areas of the body like the palms, soles, flexor surface of the digits and specific parts of the reproductive organs are devoid of hairs. Although you may not typically think of the skin as an organ, it is in fact made of tissues that work together as a single structure to perform unique and critical functions. The growth, rest and shedding of hair follicles occurs in cyclical stages of variable duration. Other changes in the appearance of skin coloration can be indicative of diseases associated with other body systems. There is a perfect match between the nail bed and plate, forming a seal, which prevents microbial invasion and debris collection. It contains blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and other structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands. Unlike the other bodily systems throughout the body, the integumentary system is not localized to one area or region of the body; instead, the integumentary system covers the entire body. In fact, it is the largest organ of the human body, covering an area of 2 square meters. It expels body salts and fluids for the excretory system. Oct 21, 2019 - Explore Jill Saylor's board "Integumentary System", followed by 161 people on Pinterest. The color of skin is influenced by a number of pigments, including melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin. Not only is this a problem for the individuals affected, but it also has a severe impact on our healthcare system. The integumentary system is supplied by the cutaneous circulation, which is crucial for thermoregulation. Alopecia areata is a non scarring, autoimmune condition which results in hair loss on the scalp and/or the body. The hair loss can affect the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). The keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum begin the synthesis of keratin and release a water-repelling glycolipid that helps prevent water loss from the body, making the skin relatively waterproof. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. It originates from the nail matrices, found at the base of the nails. Structurally, the epidermis is only about a tenth of a millimeter thick but is made of 40 to 50 rows of stacked squamous epithelial cells. Which ethnicities do you think are exempt from the possibility of albinism? Musculocutaneous vessels arise from intramuscular vasculature after piercing muscles and spreading out in the subcutaneous tissue. It is an effective barrier against potential pathogens and protects against mechanical, chemical, osmotic, thermal and ultraviolet radiation damage (through melanin). The entire layer is replaced during a period of about 4 weeks. Below is a list of structures and functions of the integumentary system. Skin, nails and hair are the major human integumentary system parts, where the first one is the largest organ not only of the integumentary system but also of all the organs in your body. The melanin is transferred into the keratinocytes via a cellular vesicle called a melanosome (Figure 5.8). Collagen fibers provide structure and tensile strength, with strands of collagen extending into both the papillary layer and the hypodermis. The hypodermis (also called the subcutaneous layer or superficial fascia) is a layer directly below the dermis and serves to connect the skin to the underlying fascia (fibrous tissue) of the bones and muscles. http://virtualslides.med_umich.edu/Histology/Basic%20Tissues/Epithelium%20and%20CT/106_HISTO_40X.svs/view.apml? The stratum basale (also called the stratum germinativum) is the deepest epidermal layer and attaches the epidermis to the basal lamina, below which lie the layers of the dermis. Eumelanin exists as black and brown, whereas pheomelanin provides a red color. These include Pacinian corpuscles, Meissner’s corpuscles and a large variety of other receptors for a range of stimuli. It is not strictly a part of the skin, although the border between the hypodermis and dermis can be difficult to distinguish. During the resting (telogen) phase, the hair follicles lie dormant. Recent studies indicate that a distressing percentage of our population is overweight and/or clinically obese. The sympathetic nervous system is continuously monitoring body temperature and initiating appropriate motor responses. Skin, nails and hair are the major human integumentary system organs, where the first one is the largest organ not only of the integumentary system but also of all the organs in your body. There are two major types of hairs: vellus and terminal. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver, Author: The stratum lucidum is a smooth, seemingly translucent layer of the epidermis located just above the stratum granulosum and below the stratum corneum. Dark-skinned individuals can also get sunburns, but are more protected than are pale-skinned individuals. Functions of the Integumentary system 1. protection a) chemical factors in the skin: Sebum (or oil) from the sebaceous glands is slightly acidic, retarding bacterial colonization on the skin surface. Well, being the largest organ in the human body, skin anatomy is certainly an important part of the integumentary system. Sweat glands are small, tubular structures located in the skin. Integumentary System, skin structure, Integumentary,System, skin, structure, pore, pores, pore of sweat gland, sweat, sweat gland, epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, eccrine sweat gland, eccrine, pacinian corpuscle, pacinian, corpuscle, cutaneous vascular plexus, hair, follicle, hair folliclle, hair shaft, shaft, sebaceous oil, sebaceous gland, hair root, adipose tissue, sensory nerve, sensory … INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM PART III: ACCESSORY STRUCTURES Integumentary Accessory Structures • Hair, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and nails: – are made of epithelial tissue (part of epidermis) – are located in dermis – project through the skin surface The Hair Follicle • Is located deep in dermis – (made of epithleial tissue) “Thick skin” is found only on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. If you zoom on the cells at the outermost layer of this section of skin, what do you notice about the cells? This article will discuss all of these components in detail together with some clinical notes about them and the integumentary system as a whole. It also functions to retain body fluids, protect against disease, eliminate waste products, and regulate body temperature. Read more. It does not have any blood vessels within it (i.e., it is avascular). The hypodermis consists of well-vascularized, loose, areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue, which functions as a mode of fat storage and provides insulation and cushioning for the integument. Albinism is a genetic disorder that affects (completely or partially) the coloring of skin, hair, and eyes. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” A couple of the more noticeable disorders, albinism and vitiligo, affect the appearance of the skin and its accessory organs. Vellus hairs do not project beyond their follicles in some of the areas, however, they are short and narrow and cover most of the surface of the body. Register now The breasts, also known as the mammary glands, are prominent, superficial structures on the anterior thoracic wall, seen especially in women. The integumentary system plays several roles in the body including: 1. This thin layer of cells is found only in the thick skin of the palms, soles, and digits. They include distal subungual, proximal subungual, white superficial and candidal. This hair type is most easily observed on children and adult women and is colloquially known as “peach fuzz”. The … However, the system which claims the largest organ of the body is called the integumentary system >, which includes the human skin, … If you want to find out more about the anatomy of the skin, have a look at this article. This happens when the oxygen supply is restricted, as when someone is experiencing difficulty in breathing because of asthma or a heart attack. Elastin fibers provide some elasticity to the skin, enabling movement. Dermal papillae increase the strength of the connection between the epidermis and dermis; the greater the folding, the stronger the connections made (Figure 5.5). Our engaging videos, interactive quizzes, in-depth articles and HD atlas are here to get you top results faster. In this image you can see the epidermis, dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue. Moles are larger masses of melanocytes, and although most are benign, they should be monitored for changes that might indicate the presence of cancer (Figure 5.9). Are you struggling with all the parts of the integumentary system? The fungi usually reside on the scales of the skin of the palms and soles and send hyphae that penetrate the hyponychium to invade the nail. The hypodermis is home to most of the fat that concerns people when they are trying to keep their weight under control. The dermis is made of two layers of connective tissue that compose an interconnected mesh of elastin and collagenous fibers, produced by fibroblasts (Figure 5.7). Cornified cells from the matrix are gradually extruded distally to form the nail plate. Two other cell types are found dispersed among the basal cells in the stratum basale. They also occur in men but are functionless. Although neither is fatal, it would be hard to claim that they are benign, at least to the individuals so afflicted. Fun facts: Skin has 2-5 million sweat glands. It requires about 10 days after initial sun exposure for melanin synthesis to peak, which is why pale-skinned individuals tend to suffer sunburns of the epidermis initially. In a growing fetus, fingerprints form where the cells of the stratum basale meet the papillae of the underlying dermal layer (papillary layer), resulting in the formation of the ridges on your fingers that you recognize as fingerprints. 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